What is URL?

URL stands for “Uniform Resource Locator” and is the most common form of Uniform Resource Identifiers: strings of characters that are used to identify a resource on the web. It tells the hypertext system that operates the internet which protocol it should use to find the resource you’re trying to access and where it is located. In simple terms, a URL is another name for a web address and helps users navigate directly to the websites they’re interested in viewing.

What does it do?

A URL makes it easier for people to find and remember the correct way to navigate to a website. Every web page has an IP (Internet Protocol) address that web browsers use to take users to their destination. However, an IP address is made up of a string of numerical characters (e.g. Imagine if you had to remember and type in different strings every time you wanted to check your email, navigate to a search engine, or log into Facebook—not ideal, right? A URL associates a more user-friendly string (like http://www.name.com) to every IP address so it’s easier for users to remember and type when they want to access a particular website.


What is malware?

Simply put, malware is software — a computer program — used to perform malicious actions. In fact, the term malware is a combination of the words malicious and software. Cyber criminals install malware on your computers or devices to gain control over them or gain access to what they contain. Once installed, these attackers can use malware to spy on your online activities, steal your passwords and files, or use your system to attack others. Malware can even deny access to your own files, demanding that you pay the attacker a ransom to regain control of them.

Many people have the misconception that malware is a problem only for Windows computers. While Windows is widely used (and thus a big target), malware can infect any device, including Mac computers, smartphones, and tablets. The more computers and devices cyber criminals infect, the more money they can make. Therefore, everyone is a target, including you.

What is Ransomware?

Ransomware is a type of malicious software that blocks access to a computer system or data, usually by encrypting it, until the victim pays a fee (ransom) to the attacker. The ransom is usually required in a form of cryptocurrency, at a price that increases after one or more deadlines. If the victim doesn’t pay by the final deadline, the data is encrypted forever.

Ransomware attacks are all too common these days. Major companies in North America and Europe alike have fallen victim to its trap. Cybercriminals will attack any consumer or any business and victims come from all industries.

Several government agencies, including the FBI, advise against paying the ransom to prevent encouraging the ransomware cycle, as does the No More Ransom Project. Furthermore, half of victims who pay the ransom are likely to suffer from repeat attacks.

History of Ransomware

Ransomware can be traced back to 1989 where the “AIDS virus” was used to extort funds from recipients of the ransomware. Payments for that attack were made by mail to Panama, at which point a decryption key was also mailed back to the user.

In 1996 ransomware was known as “cryptoviral extortion,” introduced by Moti Yung and Adam Young from Columbia University. This idea, born in academia, illustrated the progression, strength, and creation of modern cryptographic tools. Young and Yung presented the first cryptovirology attack at the 1996 IEEE Security & Privacy conference. Their virus contained the attacker’s public key and encrypted the victim’s files. The malware then prompted the victim to send asymmetric ciphertext to the attacker to decipher and return the decryption key … but for a fee.

Attackers have grown creative over the years by requiring payments that are nearly impossible to trace, which helps cybercriminals remain anonymous. For example, notorious mobile ransomware Fusob requires victims to pay using iTunes gift cards instead of normal currencies, like dollars.

Ransomware began to soar in popularity with the growth of cyptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin. Cryptocurrency is a digital currency that uses encryption techniques to verify and secure transactions and control the creation of new units. Beyond Bitcoin, there are other popular cryptocurrencies that attackers prompt victims to use, such as Ethereum, Litecoin and Ripple.

Ransomware has attacked organizations in nearly every vertical, with one of the most famous being the attacks on Presbyterian Memorial Hospital. This attack highlighted the potential damage and risks of ransomware, as labs, pharmacies, and emergency rooms were hit.

Social engineers have become more innovative over time. The Guardian wrote about a situation where new ransomware victims were asked to have two other users install the link and pay a ransom in order to have their files decrypted.

What is phishing?


the fraudulent practice of sending emails purporting to be from reputable companies in order to induce individuals to reveal personal information, such as passwords and credit card numbers.

Phishing comes in many forms. Most attempts are broad-based and automated, in order to reach a large number of individuals. The goals are to attain critical information, such as credit card data, usernames and passwords. However, spear phishing is designed to target specific individuals and companies to access confidential information. A special form of spear phishing is called a whaling attack. These cases typically target high ranking employees of a company. Their objective is to steal highly sensitive information about the company or its clients. Often, these attacks originate from a compromised email address of someone you know and trust or with whom you regularly do business with.

Spotting A Scam

Trust your instincts and stay alert. If it seems suspicious, look closely for key details such as the ones outlined below.

Tip 1

Validate the email address of the person the message is being sent from.

Tip 2

Phishing scams regularly contain misspelled words and/or improper grammar either in the subject line or body of the email. If the email comes from someone you normally do business with, does the tone of the email sound like them?

Tip 3

Review the signature. Lack of details, contact information or a formal signature block strongly suggests a phishing scam. Legitimate businesses always provide contact details.

Tip 4

Be knowledgeable about how your business associates send and receive confidential information. Do they use a secured system, such as Share Safe or Share File? Is the email you received asking you to provide information in a method not normally used for correspondence?

Tip 5

If asked to send financial information or other critical data you normally would not be asked for, contact the sender by phone to verify the request. By doing so, you alert them their email address may have been compromised and fallen prey to a phishing scam.

Tip 6

Consider taking steps so your employees quickly recognize emails received from outside your organization. One such step is to auto stamp incoming emails with a warning message to heighten team member awareness

What is blockchain technology?

What is blockchain technology ?You may have heard the term “blockchain technology” before, in reference to Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. For the uninitiated, the term might seem abstract with little real meaning on the surface. However, blockchain technology is a critical element of cryptocurrencies — without it, digital currencies like Bitcoin would not exist.If you are new to cryptocurrencies, and new to blockchain technology, read this guide on the basics to get yourself started. If you are already a seasoned trader, maybe you’ll learn a thing or two you didn’t already know.A Brief History of BlockchainTo start, let’s talk about the history of the blockchain. Before it was ever used in cryptocurrency, it had humble beginnings as a concept in computer science — particularly, in the domains of cryptography and data structures.The very primitive form of the blockchain was the hash tree, also known as a Merkle tree. This data structure was patented by Ralph Merkle in 1979, and functioned by verifying and handling data between computer systems. In a peer-to-peer network of computers, validating data was important to make sure nothing was altered or changed during transfer. It also helped to ensure that false data was not sent. In essence, it is used to maintain and prove the integrity of data being shared.In 1991, the Merkle tree was used to create a “secured chain of blocks” — a series of data records, each connected to the one before it. The newest record in this chain would contain the history of the entire chain. And thus, the blockchain was created.In 2008, Satoshi Nakamato conceptualized the distributed blockchain. It would contain a secure history of data exchanges, utilize a peer-to-peer network to time stamp and verify each exchange, and could be managed autonomously without a central authority. This became the backbone of Bitcoin. And thus, the blockchain we know today was born, as well as the world of cryptocurrencies.How Does Blockchain Work?So, then, how does the blockchain work? Let’s recall a few key features before we get into the details:1. Blockchain keeps a record of all data exchanges — this record is referred to as a “ledger” in the cryptocurrency world, and each data exchange is a “transaction“. Every verified transaction is added to the ledger as a “block”
2. It utilizes a distributed system to verify each transaction — a peer-to-peer network of nodes
3. Once signed and verified, the new transaction is added to the blockchain and can not be alteredTo begin, we need to explore the concept of “keys”. With a set of cryptographic keys, you get a unique identity. Your keys are the Private Key and Public Key, and together they are combined to give you a digital signature. Your public key is how others are able to identify you. Your private key gives you the power to digitally sign and authorize different actions on behalf of this digital identity when used with your public key.

What is brute-force Attack?

The password cracking in now a days are very common there are many softwares which is available online are very helpful.
Many times we read the terms like cracking by brut-force method.We can define a brute-force attack consists of an attacker submitting many passwords or passphrase with the hope of eventually guessing correctly. The attacker systematically checks all possible passwords and passphrase until the correct one is found. Alternatively, the attacker can attempt to guess the key which is typically created from the password using a brut-force.This is known as an exhaustive key search.A brute-force attack is a cryptanalytic attack that can, in theory, be used to attempt to decrypt any encrypted data (except for data encrypted in an information theoretically secure manner). Such an attack might be used when it is not possible to take advantage of other weaknesses in an encryption system (if any exist) that would make the task easier.Brute-force attacks work by calculating every possible combination that could make up a password and testing it to see if it is the correct password. As the password’s length increases, the amount of time, on average, to find the correct password increases exponentially.Certain types of encryption, by their mathematical properties, cannot be defeated by brute force. An example of this is one time pad cryptography, where every clear text bit has a corresponding key from a truly random sequence of key bits. A 140 character one-time-pad-encoded string subjected to a brute-force attack would eventually reveal every 140 character string possible, including the correct answer – but of all the answers given, there would be no way of knowing which was the correct one. Defeating such a system, as was done by the vinoba project generally relies not on pure cryptography, but upon mistakes in its implementation: the key pads not being truly random, intercepted keypads, operators making mistakes – or other errors.Various software that perform brutforce attack -1. Aircrack – ng2. Cain and Abel3. Crack4.DevGrohl5.Hashcat6.jhon and ripper7.L0phtcrack8.Ophcrack9.RainbowCrack

What is Automation?

Generally Automation is the branch of electrical and electronics/production/Automobile/mechanical industries.

Automation can be defined as a technology concerned with performing a process by means of programmed commands combined with Automatic feedback control to ensure proper executions of the instructions. The resulting system is capable of operating without human Intervention.

Automation can be mostly seen in form of robotic Arm. Robotics is one of these technologies; it is as specialized branch of Automation in which the Automated machine possesses certain human characteristics. The robot’s Arm can be programmed to move through a sequence of motions to perform useful tasks, such as loading and unloading parts at a production machine or making a sequence of spot-weld on the sheet -metal parts of an Automobile body during Assembly. As these example suggests, industrial robot’s are typically used to replace human workers in factory operations. Automations is generally seen in manufacturing plants.

Below you can see some Automation machines.

1. Computerised numerical control (CNC)

2. Direct control machine (DNC)

3. Programmable logic controller (PLC)

4. Robotic Arm